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  5. Oxygen Measurement Technology

Oxygen Measurement Technology

Monitoring oxygen activity throughout the steel making process is essential for final as-cast quality. In less than 10 seconds, our expendable oxygen sensors measure the melt's oxygen activity a(O) over a wide concentration range through ladle refining. Correlations to S and Si in Hot Metal, carbon and aluminium in secondary steelmaking are implemented in the formulas of our instruments. On choice, hand and automatic measuring lances may be operated wireless, without measuring cable.

Sensors: Celox®

Instruments Celox-Lab® E, iM² Sensor Lab®

Deoxidation Control at the Ladle Treatment Station

One of the main purposes of ladle metallurgy is to adjust the chemical analysis of the steel in order to have a composition appropriate for the continuous caster. The deoxidation praxis for billet and slab caster must be distinguished, because of the different steel grades.

  • LCAK-steel grades (slab casters):
    • Calculation of necessary Al additions to kill the steel and to reach the required Al in almost 1 step
    • Minutes per heat can be saved
    • After Al addition and homogenization stir: check final Al before sending ladle to continuous caster
    • Control the oxygen in the slag to avoid re-oxidation of the steel
  • Mn-Si-killed steel grades (billet casters):
    • O is controlled by Si and Mn content
    • Upper level: presence of pinholes and blowholes in the billet
    • Lower limit: nozzle clogging: limited max Al content
    • Clog due to oxidation of Al by entrapped air in steel stream or reoxidation by slag or ladle refractory material -> increased steel quality

Process Control

The Celox® sensor method, as the world’s standard for oxygen control in liquid steel, enables a lean ladle management in shops running in mixed operation, producing both, concrete and quality Al-killed grades. Significant investment can be saved and operational costs are optimized.